Friday, December 31, 1993

Food Handling and Safety in the Kitchen

Food Service Regulations Summary

(For Licensed Food Service Establishment)

Check with your state and community laws and standards before adopting this template.

1.      Person in Charge:  A Person in Charge who oversees all food service operations must be designated for each work shift.  The Person in Charge must demonstrate knowledge of food code requirements.  Additionally, each food service establishment will be required to have one Certified Food Service Manager.  The certified manager requirement will apply to all new establishments prior to opening.  A 90-day grace period is allowed when there is a change of ownership, or when the certified person leaves.  By July 1, 2000, all existing establishments will be required to have at least one Certified Food Service Manager.  Recertification is required every four years.


2.      Employee Health:  Employees are required to report to the Person in Charge if 1) they have been presently or previously diagnosed with illness caused by Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Esherichia coli 0156:H7, Hepatitis A virus, or other foodborne disease; or 2) have symptoms associated with gastrointestinal illness or skin lesions; or 3) could possibly be exposed to one of the above named diseases.  The Person in Charge should exclude or restrict the employee to protect the health of both consumers and other employees.


3.      Employee Hygiene:  Employees must vigorously wash their hands for 20 seconds with hot soap and water after any activity which may contaminate the hands.  A designated sink for hand washing is required.  Employees must keep fingernails trimmed, remove all jewelry, wear hair restraints, and otherwise maintain a high degree of cleanliness.  Employees with a persistent running nose, sneezing or cough should avoid working with food or clean equipment or utensils.


4.      Food Source:  Food must be free from adulteration or other contamination, and must be safe for human consumption.  Food must be obtained from approved sources.  Food prepared in a private home may not be used in a licensed food establishment.  Only approve food additives are allowed.  Potentially Hazardous Food to be received at a temperature below 41 degrees F, or above 140 degrees F, and free from previous temperature abuse. 


5.      Contamination by Employees:  Employees must wash hands, avoid contact with ready-to-eat foods with bare hands, minimize contact with other foods, use single-use gloves only once and discard when soiled or interrupted, and use a tasting utensil only once.


6.      Cross Contamination:  Ready-to-eat foods should be separated from raw animal products during storage, preparation and display.  Each type of raw animal food (beef, fish, pork, and poultry) should be separated also.  Refrigerated storage should be arranged with the product requiring the lowest cooking temperature on the top shelf, and the highest cooking temperature on the bottom.  Each type of food should be prepared in a separate area and cutting boards and prep areas should be sanitized between uses and during extended preparation times.


7.      Cold & Hot Storage Equipment:  Equipment must be able to maintain food temperatures at: Refrigeration:  41 degrees F of below.  Freezers:  -10 to 0 degree F.  Hot holding:  140 degrees F or above, except roasts which may be held at 130 degrees F.  Thermometers are required in all refrigerators and freezers containing potentially hazardous foods.  Food grade probe thermometers are required for testing food temperatures in storage, preparation and holding.


8.      Cooking Potentially Hazardous Food:  Raw animal foods, such as eggs, fish poultry, meat, and foods containing raw animal foods, must be cooked to heat all parts to the minimum cooking temperature/time requirements, as follows:

165 degrees:  Reheated foods, Poultry, Stuffed meats, Stuffed pastas

155 degrees:  Hamburger, Pork

145 degrees:  Beef, Lamb, Seafood

130 degrees:  Rare Roast Beef


9.      Food Display, Service, & Transport:  Foods are to be guarded from contamination by employees or consumers.  Serving utensils must be provided, and clean dishes required for return trips to self-service bars.  Sign to be posted.  Food that has been served to a consumer cannot be served to another consumer.  Potentially hazardous food must be held at 41 degrees F or below, or at 140 degrees F or above.


10.  Cooling of Potentially Hazardous Food:  Hot foods must be fast cooled to 70 degrees F in two hours, and cooled to 41 degrees F in four additional hours.  Possible methods to achieve fast cooling include:  placing the food in shallow pans, separating into smaller or thinner portions, stirring the product, place in an ice water bath, using containers that facilitate heat transfer, adding ice as in ingredient, using rapid cooling equipment, or other effective means.  Food containers must to arranged to provide maximum heat transfer through the container’s walls, and must be loosely covered unless protected from overhead contamination.


11.  Sanitation:  A three-compartment sink or commercial dishwasher is required.  Dishes and utensils are to be prescraped and presoaked to remove large quantities of food waste.  There are three steps to washing, listed in order:  wash with soap, clear water rinse, and sanitize rinse.  Air-dry only.  Sanitized wiping cloths must be used on all food contact surfaces and equipment.  When hot water sanitizing, a minimum water temperature of 170 degrees F at the dish is required.  When chemically sanitizing, use only approve sanitizers at or above the minimum recommended concentration:

Chlorine:  for dishwashing   – 50 ppm   (1 capful per ⅓ sinkful of water)

Chlorine:  for wiping cloths – 100 ppm  (1 capful per tub of water)


12.  Water Supply:  If a private system is used, monthly samples are required for bacteria analysis, and a yearly nitrate test is required.  Pressure and temperature must be sufficient to meet peak demands.  Bottled drinking water must be obtained from an approve source.  Cross connections with nondrinking water systems are prohibited.


13.  Cross Connection:  A direct connection may not exist between the sewage system and a drain originating from equipment in which food or utensils are placed.  Food prep or vegetable sinks must be plumbed with a physical air brake on the drain line.  A backflow prevention device must be installed on hoses, which may be dropped into contaminated liquid to prevent back-siphonage into the drinking water system.


14.  Hand Washing Lavatories:  At least one handwashing lavatory must be provided in the food prep area, and additional sinks may be required.  Sinks must be located to allow convenient use by employees.  The sinks must be kept clean, maintained, easily accessible, and supplied with adequate soap and towels.  Handwashing sinks may not be used for another purposes.  Water temperature not to exceed 120 degrees F to handwashing facilities.


15.  Poisons/Toxic Materials & Medicine:  Only poisons or toxic chemicals needed for the food service operations are allowed.  These chemicals must be labeled and stored in a segregated area, away from possible contact with food or equipment.  Label directions must be followed.  Sanitizers and cleaners must also be labeled, and may be stored in the warewashing areas provided that contamination of food and equipment is prevented.


16.  Insect, Rodent, Animal Control:  Inspect shipments, eliminate harborage conditions, ensure tight fitting outer openings such as doors and windows, and exterminate insects and vermin when present.  Automatic spray dispensers may not be located within 12 feet of food or equipment.

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